Postmenopausal osteoporosis

Sulima A.N., Bulyuk V.V., Mitrofanova O.A.

1) Order of the Red Banner of Labor Medical Institute named after S.I. Georgievsky V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Simferopol, Russia; 2) Simferopol Clinical Maternity Hospital No.1, Simferopol, Russia
The literature review is devoted to the problem of postmenopausal osteoporosis – a systemic, metabolic disease of skeleton characterized by low bone mass and damaged bone microarchitectonics, that often occur in postmenopausal women. Decline in bone mass and changes in its structure lead to increased bone fragility. As a result, mechanical failure of bones begins, which is clinically manifested by fractures. The literature search was conducted using key words “menopause”, “osteoporosis”, «hypoestrogenemia», «T-index», «hormonal therapy» in databases Web of Science, (eLibrary), Scopus, PubMed/MEDLINE. The articles published in 2001–2022 that were devoted to the problem of postmenopausal osteoporosis and its impact on the quality of life of menopausal patients were selected. To prevent missing relevant articles, methodological filters were not used. The study included full-text sources and literature reviews of the topic under study. The articles that were not directly related to the topic of postmenopausal osteoporosis were excluded from the review. To avoid inclusion of duplicate publications in the literature review in cases when two studies by the same authors were identified, the period of study by each author was examined and when the dates of studies coincided, the most recent publication was selected. The article discusses the pathogenetic mechanisms of osteoporosis during menopause. Low estrogen levels in women play a key role, and in turn lead to greater bone resorption than bone formation. Risk factors for the development of osteoporosis – age, sex, ethnic predisposition – were described. The clinical picture of the disease and diagnostic methods are presented in the study. The issues of possibilities of using hormonal therapy for menopausal osteoporosis, as well as other medication-assisted treatment was described.
Conclusion: Timely diagnosis and early start of menopausal hormone therapy are important for effective therapy of menopausal osteoporosis. Alternative methods of treatment should be considered for the patients over 60 years, who have symptoms of menopause for more than 10 years due to late start and ineffectiveness of menopausal hormone therapy.

Authors’ contributions: Sulima A.N. – article review format, analysis of literature data, editing; Bulyuk V.V. – collection of literature sources, article writing; Mitrofanova O.A. – editing of article review.
Conflicts of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest regarding publication of this article.
Funding: The authors declare that the research was done without any funding.
For citation: Sulima A.N., Bulyuk V.V., Mitrofanova O.A. Postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Akusherstvo i Ginekologiya/Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2023; (9): 52-59 (in Russian)


hormonal therapy


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Received 17.04.2023

Accepted 07.09.2023

About the Authors

Anna N. Sulima, Dr. Med. Sci., Professor, Professor of the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology No. 1, Order of the Red Banner of Labor Medical Institute named after S.I. Georgievsky V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University,, 295051, Russia, Simferopol, Lenin Boulevard, 5/7,
Vladislava V. Bulyuk, Resident physician of the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology No. 1, Order of the Red Banner of Labor Medical Institute
named after S.I. Georgievsky V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University,, 295051, Russia, Simferopol, Lenin Boulevard, 5/7,
Olga A. Mitrofanova, Head of the Gynecological Department, Simferopol Clinical Maternity Hospital No. 1,, 295017, Russia, Simferopol, Vorovsky str, 8,

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