Risk factors for uterine fibroids

Ponomarenko M.S., Reshetnikov E.A., Ponomarenko I.V., Churnosov M.I.

Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod, Russia

Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumors in women. Among other gynecological conditions, the prevalence of uterine fibroids is high, ranking second only to inflammatory diseases of the female reproductive system. This disease has a significant impact on the female reproductive health, and it also decreases the quality of life. In addition, uterine fibroids have a negative economic effect on health systems around the world; this impact is estimated at hundreds of billions of dollars annually. According to the literature, risk factors play an important role in the development of this disease.
The analysis of the literature data showed that the risk factors for uterine fibroids are numerous and may include heredity, vitamin D3 deficiency, race (African Americans), obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, early menarche, absence of childbirth in the patient’s history, alcohol, eating habits, stress, low physical activity.
Conclusion: Despite the large amount of evidence on the issue of risk factors for uterine fibroids available in the literature, not all the mechanisms underlying the relationship of certain risk factors with the disease are currently clear and therefore it is necessary to carry out further research on this issue.

Authors’ contributions: Ponomarenko M.S. – search and analysis of literature, summarizing the data, writing the text of the article; Ponomarenko I.V. – editing the text of the article; Reshetnikov E.A. – development of the concept and outline of the article; Churnosov M.I. – reviewing, final editing of the article.
Conflicts of interest: Authors declare lack of the possible conflicts of interests.
Funding: The study was conducted without sponsorship.
For citation: Ponomarenko M.S., Reshetnikov E.A., Ponomarenko I.V., Churnosov M.I. Risk factors for uterine fibroids. 
Akusherstvo i Ginekologiya/Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2024; (3): 20-27 (in Russian)


uterine fibroids
risk factors


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Received 27.11.2023

Accepted 19.02.2024

About the Authors

Marina S. Ponomarenko, graduate student of the Department of Biomedical Disciplines, Belgorod State National Research University, 308015, Russia, Belgorod,
Pobedy str., 85, +7(4722)30-13-83, ponomarenkomc@yandex.ru, https://orcid.org/0009-0009-0312-0829
Evgeny A. Reshetnikov, Dr. Sci. (Bio), Professor of the Department of Medical and Biological Disciplines, Belgorod State National Research University, 308015, Russia, Belgorod, Pobedy str., 85, +7(4722)30-13-83, reshetnikov@bsu.edu.ru, http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5429-6666
Irina V. Ponomarenko, Dr. Sci. (Med), Professor of the Department of Medical and Biological Disciplines, Belgorod State National Research University, 308015, Russia, Belgorod, Pobedy str., 85, +7(4722)30-13-83, ponomarenko_i@bsu.edu.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5652-0166
Mikhail I. Churnosov, Dr. Sci. (Med), Head of the Department of Medical and Biological Disciplines, Belgorod State National Research University, 308015, Russia, Belgorod, Pobedy str., 85, +7(4722)30-13-83, churnosov@bsu.edu.ru, http://orcid.org/0000-0003- 1254-6134
Corresponding author: Irina V. Ponomarenko, ponomarenko_i@bsu.edu.ru

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