Platelet activation by seminal plasma components in the induction of mechanisms of immunological tolerance in pregnancy

Zhukova A.S., Nikolaeva M.A., Krechetova L.V.

Academician V.I. Kulakov National Medical Research Centre for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia
The non-hemostatic function of platelets has been confirmed by numerous studies. Besides their participation in pathological processes, these cells play an important role in the menstrual cycle, embryo implantation and maintaining the pregnancy. Megakaryocyte derivatives contribute to leukocyte differentiation, polarization of the immune response and the induction of immunological tolerance through the secretion of soluble mediators and through direct intercellular interactions in the activation process. The activation occurs both in response to changes in hemodynamics and due to the action of factors found in the platelet microenvironment on a wide spectrum of receptors on their surface. The thorough analysis of the composition of seminal plasma revealed a wide range of components that can modulate the functional activity of platelets, namely, induction of migration, aggregation, secretion of granule contents, expression of activation markers, apoptosis. A local short-term inflammation that develops after semen plasma enters the female reproductive tract is able to determine the nature of platelet-leukocyte interactions followed by the recruitment of neutrophil granulocytes in this area, their timely elimination and migration of T-regulatory lymphocytes. Incorrect platelet activation by seminal plasma components can lead to an increase in their procoagulant potential which is associated with impaired vascularization processes, the development of microthrombi in uterine vessels and the progression of placenta-associated pregnancy complications.
Conclusion: Seminal plasma components provide regulation of molecular and cellular interactions including platelet activation involved in the preparation of the female reproductive tract for embryo implantation and the creation of a microenvironment favorable for maintaining the pregnancy.

Authors’ contributions: Zhukova A.S. – developing the concept and plan of the article, searching and analyzing the literature, summarizing the data, writing the text of the manuscript; Nikolaeva M.A. – searching and analyzing the literature, summarizing the data, editing the text of the manuscript; Krechetova L.V. – reviewing, final editing.
Conflicts of interest: The authors declare no possible conflicts of interest.
Funding: The study was conducted within the framework of the state assignment “Solving the problem of infertility in modern conditions through the development of a clinical and diagnostic model of infertile marriage and the use of innovative technologies in assisted reproduction programs” No. 22-A21-121040600410-7.
For citation: Zhukova A.S., Nikolaeva M.A., Krechetova L.V. Platelet activation by seminal plasma components in the induction of mechanisms of immunological tolerance in pregnancy.
Akusherstvo i Ginekologiya/Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2023; (9): 5-11 (in Russian)


platelet-leukocyte interactions
seminal plasma


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Received 14.06.2023

Accepted 20.07.2023

About the Authors

Anastasia S. Zhukova, PhD (Bio), Senior Researcher at the Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Academician V.I. Kulakov National Medical Research Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Health of Russia, +7(495)438-11-83,,,
117997, Russia, Moscow, Ac. Oparina str., 4.
Marina A. Nikolaeva, Dr. Bio. Sci., Leading Researcher at the Laboratory of Clinical Imunology, Academician V.I. Kulakov National Medical Research Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Health of Russia, +7(495)438-11-83,,,
117997, Russia, Moscow, Ac. Oparina str., 4.
Lubov V. Krechetova, Dr. Med. Sci., Head of the Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Academician V.I. Kulakov National Medical Research Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Health of Russia, +7(495)438-11-83,,,
117997, Russia, Moscow, Ac. Oparina str., 4.

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