The role of vitamin D and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiencies in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome

Abashova E.I., Yarmolinskaya M.I.

1) D.O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductology, Saint Petersburg, Russia; 2) I.I. Mechnikov North-Western State Medical University; Ministry of Health of Russia, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in every 5 reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS are frequently found to have carbohydrate metabolism disorders, overweight, and obesity. The pathogenesis of PCOS is associated with both insulin resistance and a proinflammatory state, oxidative stress, which support the development of metabolic disorders. The role of micronutrients in both the correction of inflammation and oxidative stress and the processes of steroidogenesis, epigenetic regulation, lipid metabolism, and glucose and insulin transport is known. Widespread deficiencies of vitamin D and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the most common conditions associated with the insufficient intake of these micronutrients in the population. Correction of deficiency conditions with the use of vitamins and dietary supplements in women with PCOS is reflected in numerous new studies investigating the benefits of these treatments.
This review summarizes the latest data of randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews that analyze the efficacy of vitamin D and omega-3 PUFAs in the treatment of PCOS.
Conclusion: Using the drugs that affect steroidogenesis, insulin resistance, and lipid metabolism and correcting inflammation and oxidative stress in combination with basic treatment and therapeutic lifestyle changes can prevent adverse reproductive and metabolic outcomes in women with PCOS. The data of the presented studies suggest that the use of vitamin D and omega-3 PUFAs may be a useful adjunctive treatment for PCOS.

Authors’ contributions: Abashova E.I. – writing the text; Yarmolinskaya M.I. – editing.
Conflicts of interest: The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
Funding: The article has been prepared for publication as part of the fundamental scientific topic – the State Assignment of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation "Strategy for maintaining the health of women with gynecological and endocrine diseases in different age periods: a pathogenetic rationale for medical rehabilitation and development new area of organ-sparing surgical interventions” under No. 1021062812154-3-3.2.2.
For citation: Abashova E.I., Yarmolinskaya M.I. The role of vitamin D and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiencies in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome.
Akusherstvo i Ginekologiya/Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2023; 1: 101-108 (in Russian)


polycystic ovary syndrome
vitamin D
omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
glucose intolerance
insulin resistance
soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products


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Received 17.01.2023

Accepted 23.01.2023

About the Authors

Elena I. Abashova, PhD, Senior Researcher, Department of Gynecology and Endocrinology, D.O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductology, +7(812)328-98-20, +7(921)945-90-90,,, SPIN-код: 2133-0310,
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 3.
Maria I. Yarmolinskaya, Professor of RAS, Dr. Med. Sci., Professor, Head of the Department of Gynecology and Endocrinology, Head of Center “Diagnostics and treatment of endometriosis”, D.O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductology; Professor at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, I.I. Mechnikov North-Western State Medical University,,, eLibrary SPIN-код: 3686-3605,
199034, Russia, St. Petersburg, Mendeleevskaya line, 3.

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