Primary prevention of human papillomavirus in Russia: analysis of international experience and determination of the best strategy

Gorbunova Е.А., Apolikhina I.A., Golubenko А.Е., Priputnevich Т.V.

1) Academician V.I. Kulakov National Medical Research Centre for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia; 2) I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia; 3) Orel Colposcopy Center LLC, Orel, Russia

Vaccination is the only highly effective way of primary prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) disease, which is the main cause of cervical cancer. In addition to cervical cancer, oncogenic HPV types contribute to the development of cancer of the vagina, vulva, penis and anal canal, as well as some types of cancer of the head and neck. HPV is transmitted sexually; therefore, the HPV vaccine is recommended before the start of sexual activity. Foreign experience shows that the introduction of mass HPV vaccination programs, even with a divalent vaccine, significantly reduces the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer among the vaccinated population. Vaccination course consisting of more than one dose does not provide any advantages in terms of the formation of an immune response, but it significantly increases the cost and makes the full course of vaccination more difficult. Vaccination with the Russian single-dose tetravalent vaccine will not only reduce the risks associated with cervical cancer, but it will also make a significant contribution to public healthcare. This approach will not only cover a higher share of the population, but it will also minimize the economic component of vaccination; the vaccine will be given free of charge and covered by the health insurance system. The lack of knowledge about HPV and the diseases it can cause, including cancer, among children, adolescents and adults, is a major obstacle to mass vaccination. Therefore, informing parents, children and adolescents about vaccination should become a priority task for medical professionals and specialists in the field of education. The popularization of HPV vaccination as a means of primary prevention in the media will ensure positive awareness of the population about the simple prevention of HPV-associated oncological diseases. 
Conclusion: Thus, the HPV vaccination scheme with the minimum number of doses is considered to be the most effective. For the successful implementation of the HPV vaccination program in the Russian Federation, it is recommended to use the Russian tetravalent vaccine, which is already completing the last phase of trials. It is necessary to carry out mass educational work among the population in order to popularize the vaccine as a means of primary prevention of HPV-associated oncological diseases.

Authors’ contributions: Apolikhina I.A., Gorbunova E.A., Golubenko A.E. – developing the concept and design of the study, conducting literature search and analysis, writing the text, approving the final version of the article; Priputnevich T.V. – editing the text, approving the final version of the article.
Conflicts of interest: The authors declare no possible conflicts of interest.
Funding: The study was conducted without sponsorship.
For citation: Gorbunova Е.А., Apolikhina I.A., Golubenko А.Е., Priputnevich Т.V. Primary prevention of human papillomavirus in Russia: analysis of international experience and determination of the best strategy.
Akusherstvo i Ginekologiya/Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2024; (5): 158-165 (in Russian)


human papillomavirus
cervical cancer
HPV type 16
anogenital warts
papillomavirus infection
primary prevention


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Received 26.04.2024

Accepted 14.05.2024

About the Authors

Elena A. Gorbunova, obstetrician-gynecologist, Researcher at the Department of Aesthetic Gynecology and Rehabilitation, V.I. Kulakov National Medical Research Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology, Ministry of Health of Russia, 117997, Russia, Moscow, Ac. Oparina str., 4, +7(495)531-44-44,,
Inna A. Apolikhina, Dr. Med. Sci., Professor, Head of the Department of Aesthetic Gynecology and Rehabilitation, V.I. Kulakov National Medical Research Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology, Ministry of Health of Russia, 117997, Russia, Moscow, Ac. Oparina str., 4; Professor at the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, Perinatology, and Reproductology, Institute of Professional Education, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia (Sechenov University), +7(495)735-10-55,,
Aleksei E. Golubenko, MD, CEO and Head of Orel Colposcopy Center, gynecological oncologist, 302040, Russia, Orel region, Orel, per. Kinoprokatny, 2,
+7(910)308-84-89, golubr@mail.ru302040,
Tatyana V. Priputnevich , Dr. Med. Sci., Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of the Institute of Microbiology, Antimicrobial Therapy and Epidemiology, V.I. Kulakov National Medical Research Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology, Ministry of Health of Russia,
117997, Russia, Moscow, Ac. Oparina str., 4,

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