The urinary microbiota in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women and its changes in overactive bladder syndrome

Belyi L.E.

Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk, Russia

The urinary microbiota is similar to other human microbial communities in terms of its organization: there is no single normal state, however, despite serious interindividual differences in composition and diversity, there are some trends in their organization. The composition of the urinary microbiota depends on gender, age, lifestyle, diet, medications taken by a patient, and hormonal status.
This review presents new scientific data on the principles of organizing the urinary microbial community in healthy women. The most common urotypes of the urinary microbiota are described. 
The review shows the results of studies proving the close link of the urinary microbiota with the microbial community of the vagina and gastrointestinal tract. The analysis of the clinical studies demonstrates that the presence of Lactobacillus in the bladder is one of the protective mechanisms of the urinary tract from uropathogens, therefore quantitative and qualitative changes in the urinary microbial community in postmenopausal women are likely to increase the risk of urinary tract diseases.
The results of studies on the role of the urinary microbiota in the development of an overactive bladder syndrome and urgent urinary incontinence are discussed.
Conclusion: It is necessary to continue studying the principles of the organization of the urinary microbiota in a healthy woman and the changes occurring in the urinary microbial community under pathological conditions, since it may contribute to the development of new preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for a wide variety of diseases.

Conflicts of interest: The author declares lack of the possible conflicts of interests.
Funding: The study was conducted without sponsorship.
For citation: Belyi L.E. The urinary microbiota in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women and its changes in overactive bladder syndrome.
Akusherstvo i Ginekologiya/Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2024; (2): 23-30 (in Russian)


urinary microbiota
overactive bladder
urgent urinary incontinence


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Received 19.12.2023

Accepted 01.02.2024

About the Authors

Lev E. Belyi, Dr. Med. Sci., Professor of the Department of hospital surgery, anesthesiology, reanimatology, urology, traumatology, orthopedics, Ulyanovsk State University, 432017, Russia, Ulyanovsk, Leo Tolstoy str., 42, +7(917)605-97-19,,

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