The Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology Commemorates the 100th Anniversary
The development of the specialty has undergone significant changes over the years. Emphasis has been placed on preventing maternal and infant mortality and the organization of obstetric and gynecological care. The transition from classical obstetrics to perinatal obstetrics was accompanied by more active obstetric strategies. The operative delivery rate has increased significantly, from 1.5-2% to 25% of all births. The maternal mortality rate decreased from 70-75 to 8-9 per 100,000 live births, i.e., by almost ten times. This became possible with the simultaneous development of neonatology and the construction of perinatal centers. Infant mortality has fallen by a factor of 6-8, from 36-38 to 5-7 per thousand births.
The Journal has always covered the most challenging issues in obstetrics, gynecology, and neonatology. There have been discussions about the appropriateness of active management for improving Cesarean delivery, including anesthesia, prevention of infection, reducing blood loss. As a result, the risk of Caesarean section complications approached that of natural childbirth. Much attention was paid to extragenital morbidity in pregnancy. There was much discussion on the organization of obstetric care in hospitals and antenatal clinics. The Journal sought to show all the negative aspects of the isolation of obstetric care from general health care.
In the second half of the twentieth century, the Journal largely fulfilled the role of an organizer of obstetric care. The congresses of the Russian Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists were held once in 5 years, plenums of the Society and conferences were not regular. The mass media were not used to cover medical problems. Specialized medical publications were the most important sources of information.
The Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology reflected all the changes in scientific and practical gynecology development. There was consistent development of gynecological endocrinology, immunology, endoscopic surgery, molecular biology, genetics in obstetrics and gynecology.
Much work has been done on preventing abortions, family planning, and infertility treatment. Assisted reproductive technologies and in vitro fertilization were core topics featured in the Journal.
The last 25-30 years have changed the information landscape. The Internet and modern communication technologies have made professional knowledge accessible to the whole world. However, the number of professional journals has increased, and their publications reflect the interests of professionals.
In recent years, the Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology has acquired a new base – now it is co-owned by the V.I. Kulakov National Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology of Minzdrav of Russia and the Russian Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
The V.I. Kulakov National Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology is the country's most significant and unique by domestic and world standards, the leading Russian research, medical and educational institution. Its activities include implementing national projects on preserving the health of women, mothers, and children, mastering the most advanced clinical technologies, developing fundamental and applied science, and active participation in continuous medical education. It has seven institutes, including the Institute for Obstetrics, the Institute for Anesthesiology, Resuscitation and Transfusiology, the Institute for Reproductive Medicine, the Institute for Oncogynecology and Mammology, the Institute for Reproductive Genetics, the Institute for Neonatology and Pediatrics, the Institute for Microbiology, Antimicrobial Therapy and Epidemiology, the National Medical Centre for Anesthesiology and Resuscitation in Pregnancy, and four departments - Professional Education, Research Organization, and Regional Cooperation and Integration.
Annually, the Center provides care for about 9000 births, 185500 outpatient consultations, and performs 25000 operations.
The Centre's day-to-day work with the regions is vital in practical terms. The Centre manages the Severe Maternal Morbidity Surveillance System providing real-time coverage of all medical organizations in all the country's regions by leading specialists in obstetrics and anesthesiology. Immediate consultations by the country's leading experts in obstetrics, gynecology, and obstetric anesthesia are available for all severe maternal morbidity cases through telemedicine technologies. Every day, 100-150 patients with the most severe complications of pregnancy and childbirth from all country regions are closely monitored at the Kulakov National Medical Research Centre, visits are made to the regions, and severe patients are admitted to the Centre.
The Centre is the headquarters of the Russian Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Continuing medical education projects are actively developed. Every year, the Centre and RSOG organize All-Russian Scientific and Educational Forum "Mother and Child," an interdisciplinary forum, the largest and most significant forum for obstetricians-gynecologists and related specialists in the country, the RSOG Plenum, and up to 10 large congresses with international attendance.
All conditions have been created at the Centre for the development of scientific research at the current level, with molecular genetic studies becoming predominant.
The Journal reflects current scientific innovations. The results of domestic research are published, and literature reviews of the notable international papers regularly appear in the Journal.
Over the last two years, the Centre and the Journal have paid particular attention to the problem of controlling coronavirus infection. During the first wave of coronavirus infection, the Centre established a temporary hospital for obstetric care of pregnant women with Covid-19. Daily counseling services and surveillance of pregnant women with COVID-19 in the country continue. The Journal has published domestic and international studies on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of patients with COVID-19.
The Journal Obstetrics and Gynecology closely cooperates with its founders - National Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology and the Russian Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and remains faithful to the purpose of generating and disseminating scientific information for obstetricians and gynecologists, and allied health professionals, updating doctors' professional knowledge and participating in scientific research.
The Journal observes its 100th Anniversary with the firm intention of continuing its significant contribution to the scientific and practical aspects of maternal and child health care in our country.
Academician of the RAS G.T. Sukhikh
Academician of the RAS V.N. Serov